Hydroxychloroquine (plaquenil) is a drug that is also used to treat malaria (McKenna, Gigi and Amy2001, p.167). The chemical formula for hydroxychloroquine is (C18H26CINO3). Plaquenil is slightly varied to chloroquine because there is extra of hydroxyl group attached to it at the end of the chain.
Hydroxyl group is the sharing of the electrons between the atoms of oxygen and hydrogen. When carbon is bonded to hydroxyl it can produce carboxylic acid group as in a covalent bonding and the sharing of these electrons is termed as covalently bonding (McKenna, Gigi and Amy2001, p.167).
The proportion of hydroxychloroquine that is administered is about 310mg. Hydroxychloroquine is taken orally and then it take awhile for the drug to be broken down into small pieces (metabolism).
When this drug is taken, it stops the parasite from producing or synthesising of the protein and this cause the plasmodium death (McKenna, Gigi and Amy 2001, p.167).
It takes about 1-6 hours for the drug to be broken down into smaller pieces before it can be absorbed into the body tissues completely (McKenna, Gigi and Amy (2001, p.167).
Carbon is bonded to hydroxyl to produce carboxylic acid group as in a covalent bonding and the sharing of the electrons is termed as covalent bonding.
On the other hand, chloroquine is 4-aminoquinoline class of antimalarial drug. It was invented in 1934 in the United States of America at Bayer laboratory , it is the top medicine that is used to treat malaria today in common places like South America, Asia and Africa (Norman, Patrick, p.448-449).
The amount of chloroquine (CQ) receive via mouth by the individual is about 27.9 mg/kg body weight. It has been suggested that (CQ) can and has the ability to diffuse into red blood cell (RBC) and inhibiting the parasite in a vacuole by the process known as a simple diffusion.
Finally, primaquine is a medication that is also used to treat malaria. It belongs to the class of 8-aminoquinoline group of anti-malaria drug. It was synthesised by Mr Robert Elderfield in Columbia University in 1940 (Getachew et al. 2016)
The drug chemical formula is (CH15H21N3O), the sharing of the electrons between this structural formula is held by weak bonding called hydrogen bonding. “Hydrogen bond is the electrostatic attraction between polar groups that occurs when a hydrogen (H) atom bond to a highly electronegative atoms such as carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O).
Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primaquine
Norman, L &Patrick, M 2011, Core concepts in pharmacology, Julie Levin Alexander, 3rdedn, New Jersey, United States of America.
Getachew,S, Thriemer, K, Auburn, S, Abera, A, Gadisa, E, Aseffa, A,Price, RN, & Petros,B 2015, ‘ Chloroquine efficacy for Plasmodium vivax malaria treatment in Southern Ethiopia,’ Malaria journal, vo. 14, pp. 1-18, retrieved 15 May 2016.Gg==